Numerical quantification of the wind properties of cool main sequence stars
Judy J. Chebly, Julián D. Alvarado-Gómez, Katja Poppenhäger, Cecilia Garraffo
1Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482, Potsdam, Germany/ Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm, 14476, Germany/ Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
As a cool star evolves, it loses mass and angular momentum due to magnetized stellar winds which affect its rotational evolution. This change has consequences that range from the alteration of its activity to influences over the atmosphere of any orbiting planet. Despite their importance, observations constraining the properties of stellar winds in cool stars are extremely limited. Therefore, numerical simulations provide a valuable way to understand the structure and properties of these winds. In this work, we simulate the magnetized winds of 21 cool main-sequence stars (F-type to M-dwarfs), using a state-of-the-art 3D MHD code driven by observed large-scale magnetic field distributions. We perform a qualitative and quantitative characterization of our solutions, analyzing the dependencies between the driving conditions (e.g., spectral type, rotation, magnetic field strength) and the resulting stellar wind parameters (e.g., Alfvén surface size, mass loss rate, angular momentum loss rate, stellar wind speeds). We compare our models with the current observational knowledge on stellar winds in cool stars and explore the behaviour of the mass loss rate as a function of the Rossby number. Furthermore, our 3D models encompass the entire classical Habitable Zones (HZ) of all the stars in our sample. This allows us to provide the stellar wind dynamic pressure at both edges of the HZ and analyze the variations of this parameter across spectral type and orbital inclination. The results here presented could serve to inform future studies of stellar wind-magnetosphere interactions and stellar wind erosion of planetary atmospheres via ion escape processes.